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Dao Lekkraci Drid Kham (Laos)

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Dao Lekkraci Drid Kham (Representation of Laos)

ஜ~ General Info~ஜ


♚Full name; Dao Lekkraci Drid Kham (Laos; Lao PDR)

♚Age; Unknown; the country itself is very young so she's portrayed as a child.

♚Gender; Female

♚Independence; From France, July 19th 1949.

♚Captial; Vientiane

♚Motto; "Peace, Independence, Democracy, Unity, and Prosperity."

♚ National flower; Plumeria

♚Height; 3'1

♚Weight; 56lbs - 25kg.

♚Native languages; Lao, Thai, Hmong, English, and French.

♚Religion(s); Theravada Buddhist, Christian

♚ Government; Communist, Socialist rebuplic

♚Currency; Kip (LAK)

♚ National dish; Larb (lap, laap, larp, laab)

♚ Current president; Choummaly Sayasone


ஜ~Personality~ஜ


Dao is a lover, not a fighter. She loves everything. Be it living or non-living. She's just a little teddy bear. But she's a bit anti-social, ever since France abandoned her. She's been isolated away from people, so she doesn't know how to communicate properly with them. If she gain's your trust, then she'll probably be more social around you. Depends. Dao is also very sensitive.


ஜ~ Hobbies ~ஜ


Sewing; It calms her.


Working; She believes it.. er.. builds character. Beh, she works too much. For a child, anyway.


Sleeping; Yeah, she sleeps a lot.


Cooking; She's actually very good at it; papa France taught her.


Cleaning; Seeing things clean is like, the best thing ever to her.


Observing; No, she's not a stalker, she just likes to watch people do what they do.


Wandering; She likes learning new things and seeing new places.


Drawing; Yes, Dao loves drawing. She's not very good at it but .. that's not what matters.


Staying quiet; It's the thing she does best.


ஜ~Family~ஜ


♥ Thailand; brother / guardian.


♥ France; father.


♥ Vietnam; sister.


♥ Japan; sees him as a brother.


♥ ASEAN; older siblings.


♥ Lan Xang; Her mother. Lan was former Laos, a very, very long time ago though.


ஜ~Friends~ஜ


•Cuba; A somewhat close friend.


•China; Trying to strengthen friendship.


• Australia; He helped her with the AIDS/HIV problems in her country, and she's very grateful for that.


•Taiwan; Dao thinks she's very beautiful and hopes to be like her one day, a strong and stable nation.


•Indonesia; Hopes to start trading with soon.


• Norway; Developing hydropower with; no really. Look it up.


• Cambodia; They help each other.


ஜ~History~ஜ

♔ The Tai (also spelled Dai) are a linguistic group originating in southern China, which includes the Lao, the Siamese, the people of theShan region of north-eastern Burma, the Zhuang people of Guangxi Province in China and the Tho and Nung people of northernVietnam. Under pressure from the expansion of the Han Chinese, the Tai began to migrate into South-East Asia during the first millennium AD. They displaced earlier peoples (including the iron age culture who made the great stone jars from which the Plain of Jars in central Laos takes its name). The Mekong River, which flows through what is now Laos, was a major migration route, but the strength of the Khmer Empire (Cambodia) prevented the Tai from dominating the Mekong Valley. Instead the main area of Tai settlement was further south in the Chao Phraya Valley, where they formed a series of kingdoms ancestral to modern Siam and Thailand.

♔ The earliest Lao legal document (and the earliest sociological evidence about the existence of the Lao people) is known as "the laws of Khun Borom" (also spelled "Khun Bulom"), still preserved in manuscript form.

♔ This set of memoriter laws is written in a type of indigenous blank verse, and reflects the state of proto-Lao society as early as the 9th century, possibly prior to their adoption of Theravada Buddhism, and prior to (or coeval with) their southward migration into the territory now comprising modern Laos (from North-Western Vietnam).

♔ While most Lao people regard Borom/Bulom as a subject of myth only, Western scholars regard him as an historical figure, albeit there is very little factually known about him aside from the fact of his bare existence and the description of a very primitive kingdom in his laws.

♔ In general terms, these ancient laws describe an agrarian society in which life revolves around subsistence agriculture with domesticated water-buffaloes (the gayal). The strict punishments set down for stealing or killing a neighbor's elephant reflect that these were (evidently) an expensive and important possession of the time.

♔ The official History of Laos as introduced in government textbooks, is conventionally traced to the establishment of the kingdom of Lan Xang by Fa Ngum in 1353. This is a relatively conservative date to begin the history of the nation, providing a contrast to the course taken by Thai historiography (which reaches back implausibly far into proto-history). By the 14th century, when this "official history" begins, the speakers of early Lao-related languages had probably developed a reasonable base of population among the prior inhabitants of (what is now) Laos over the prior century or two.

♔ The earlier inhabitation of the land by peoples such as the Mon kingdom of Dvaravati and Proto-Khmer peoples was given a great deal of emphasis in the histories of Laos written during the French colonial period. However, post-colonial historiography has instead sought to represent all peoples of Laos as equally "indigenous", relating the early history in terms of a complex interaction with the (admittedly more ancient) Cambodian kingdoms to the south, and praising the Proto-Khmer as Lao nationalists for their heroism n modern struggles against the French and Americans (see, e.g., theOng Keo Rebellion starting circa 1902).

♔ Both French colonial history and post-colonial (Communist) history sought to reverse the obvious racism of earlier, popular accounts that when the Lao migrated into the country, they simply conquered and enslaved the native inhabitants (viz., primarily Proto-Khmer people, described in such a context with the derogatory term "Kha-That"). This traditional view has almost no factual basis, but remains a commonly heard pseudo-history, and a special concern for teachers to address (or redress) in the classroom. Vatthana Pholsena provides a survey of the historiography on this point inPost-War Laos, 2006, Silkworm Books.

♔ It is generally assumed that, as late as the 16th century, King Photisarath helped establish Theravada Buddhism as the predominant religion of the country. However, this aspect of official history may now have to change given recent archaeological discoveries in Cambodia and Vietnam, showing intact Pali inscriptions as early as the 9th century. (See: JPTS, Vol. XXIII, 1997: Peter Skilling, "New Paali Inscriptions from Southeast Asia")

♔ While there can be no doubt that animism and fragments of Shiva-worship were popular in ancient Laos, evidence increasingly indicates a long, gradual process leading to the ascendancy of Buddhism (rather than a single king converting the country). The reverse also did occur, as with the historical layers of statuary and inscriptions at Wat Phu Champassak; the oldest are in Sanskrit, and worship Shiva, while the later evidence is Buddhist, subsequently reverting to animism (with the most recent statues simply depicting giant elephants and lizards, with no references to the organized religions of India, and neither Sanskrit nor Pali text).

♔ It is significant to note that all of these official histories exclude the (possible and actual) influence of Chinese religion in the region. In fact, the ancient Lao calendar and Thai calendar are both of Chinese origin (adapted from the "Heavenly Stem Branch Calendar"), and do not reflect Indian cosmology. These calendars were both part of the royal religion (preserved in epigraphy) and, apparently, part of popular religion (fortune telling) for centuries.

♔ During the first millennium AD the Tai peoples were loosely organised in small entities known as muang or mandalas. They were heavily influenced by the more advanced cultures around them: the Khmer to the south-east, and the Hindu cultures of India to the west. Most of the Tai were converted to a form of Hinduism, traces of which can still be seen in Lao religious practice today. Between the 6th and 9th centuries AD Buddhism was introduced into the Tai-speaking lands, probably via Burma, and became the dominant religion. But the Lao retain many animist religious practices from the pre-Buddhist era. As the Tai peoples became established, they divided into a number of linguistic sub-groups. These included the Tai-Lao, who during the 11th and 12th centuries AD spread along the middle Mekong Valley and across the Khōrāt Plateau (now the Isan region of north-eastern Thailand). Their advance down the Mekong was blocked at Champāsak by the Khmers, who built the great temple at Wat Phū. The Lao in turn divided into further groups, based on where they lived in relation to the river. These were the Lao-Lum (Lao of the valley floor), the Lao-Thoeng (Lao of the mountain slopes) and the Lao-Sūng (Lao of the mountain tops). This latter group included various linguistic minorities only distantly related to the Tai. The Lao-Lum, having the best farming land and the best access to river transport, became the wealthiest of the Tai-Lao peoples. These divisions have haunted Lao history and still exist today, with many Lao-Thoeng and Lao-Sūng people having only a tenuous loyalty to a Lao-Lum dominated state.

♔ The rise and fall of various early Lao states is now recorded only in myth. The earliest historically identifiable Lao leader is Khun Lô, who probably conquered the Luang Phrabāng area from non-Tai people in the 12th century. Because the Mekong is divided into three distinct navigable sections by rapids, between Luang Phrabāng and Viang Chan (Vientiane) and between Viang Chan andSavannakhēt, these three towns became the centres of three distinct Lao-Lum mandalas. This pattern was disrupted by the Mongol invasion of 1253, when part of Kublai Khan's army advanced down the Mekong to attack the Khmers. In the wake of the Mongol withdrawal a new kingdom were founded by the Siamese at Sukhothai, which was later succeeded by a more powerful Siamese state with its capital at Ayutthaya (founded in 1351). The kingdom of Lān Nā, based at Chiang Mai and containing both Siamese and Lao elements, was also founded at this time.

♔ In response, the Tai-Lao rulers of Luang Phrabāng (which was then called Xiang Dong Xiang Thong) formed a new state which, while still nominally subject to the Mongol rulers of China, became the leading force among the Lao peoples. From about 1271 this state was ruled by a dynasty called the Phrayā. In about 1350 a prince of this dynasty, Fā Ngum, fled the court with his father after a dispute and sought refuge with the Khmers at Angkor, where he married a royal princess. In 1353 he returned at the head of an army (presumably with Khmer aid), captured Xiang Dong Xiang Thong and founded a new Lao state which covered the whole Lao-speaking Mekong valley. This was Lān Xāng, the Kingdom of a Million Elephants. The Lao state dates only from 1945. The idea of a separate Lao nationality was formed during the 19th century, when western ideas of national identity reached South-East Asia, and when the Lao-speaking peoples were being squeezed between two expansionist powers, Siam (Thailand) and Annam (Vietnam). The current borders of Laos were created by France in 1893 and 1904. Today the official history of Laos is traced back to the Kingdom of Lān Xāng, which was founded in 1353. But in reality the Lao share a common history with the Siamese and other people of the Tai language group, and Lān Xāng was only one of a number of Tai kingdoms in a region which had a broad linguistic and cultural unity before the arrival of outside powers

♔ In the 19th century, Luang Prabang was incorporated into the 'Protectorate' of French Indochina, and shortly after, the Kingdom of Champasak and the territory of Vientiane were also added to the protectorate. Under the French, Vientiane once again became the capital of a unified Lao state.

♔ Following a brief Japanese occupation during World War II, Laos declared it's independence in 1945, but the French under Charles de Gaulle re-asserted their control and only in 1950 was Laos granted semi-autonomy as an "associated state" within the French Union. Moreover, the French remained in de facto control until 1954, when Laos gained full independence as a constitutional monarchy.

♔ Laos was dragged into the Vietnam War and the eastern parts of the country followed North Vietnam and adopted North Vietnam as a fraternal country. Laos allowed North Vietnam to use it's land as a supply route for its war against the South Vietnam. In response, the United States initiated a bombing campaign against the North Vietnamese, supported regular and irregular anticommunist forces in Laos and supported a South Vietnamese invasion of Laos. The result of these actions were a series of coups d'état and, ultimately, the Laotian Civil War between the Royal Laotian government and the communist Pathet Lao.

♔ Massive aerial bombardment was carried out by the United States. The Guardian reported that Laos was hit by an average of one B-52 bombload every eight minutes, 24 hours a day, between 1964 and 1973. US bombers dropped more ordnance on Laos in this period than was dropped during the whole of the Second World War. Of the 260 million bombs that rained down, particularly on Xiangkhouang Province on the Plain of Jars, 80 million failed to explode, leaving a deadly legacy. It holds the distinction of being the most bombed country, per capita, in the world. Because it was particularly heavily affected by cluster bombs during this war, Laos was a strong advocate of the Convention on Cluster Munitions to ban the weapons and assist victims, and will host the First Meeting of States Parties to the convention in November 2010.

♔ In 1975, the communist Pathet Lao, along with Vietnam People's Army and backed by the Soviet Union, overthrew the royalist Lao government, forcing King Savang Vatthana to abdicate on 2 December 1975. He later died in captivity. After taking control of the country, the Pathet Lao government under Kaysone Phomvihane renamed the country as the "Lao People's Democratic Republic" and signed agreements giving Vietnam the right to station armed forces and to appoint advisers to assist in overseeing the country. Laos was requested in the late 1970s by Vietnam to end relations with the People's Republic of China, leading to isolation in trade by China, the United States, and other countries. The socialist system has slowly been replaced by the relaxation of economic restrictions in the 1980s and admission into ASEAN in 1997.


ஜ~Interesting Facts~ஜ


♣ She's partially blind; please remember that. This is why her eye colour is so light, and not brown.


♣ There's a cowlick on the bottom left side of her head that represents Laos' capital, Vientiane.


♣ Laos is the worst affected country in the world, because of this, she has many emotional and physical problems.


♣ She likes to follow. Not in a creepy way though, she's just curious.


♣ Her self esteem isn't very high, because of growing up around pretty girls and handsome boys.


♣ Because of being raised by France, her hair is short and curly.


♣ She stutters when she speaks, it's because of all the bombs and explosions that've happened there. They left her traumatized and stuttering; and because it's hard for her to speak English.


♣ Papa France gave her a beret when she was little, so she wears it on certain occasions. ♣ She has a verbal tick, 'awawa'.


♣ She has very sensitive ears, so loud noises upset her.


♣ Due to her slight blindness, she has very keen sense of hearing, smell, and touch.


♣ She has asthma, due to the horrible air quality in her country. In all of South East Asia, actually.


♣ Animals are her best friends. Especially elephants.


♣ Laos is landlocked, between Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, and China.


♣The Lao people drive on the right side.


♣ Dao has very thick eyebrows. They represent the dense forests in Laos.


♣ In WWII the US dropped 260 million bombs on Laos, some that are still there and very dangerous.

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